The name of the translator usually appears on the title page of a book , following the name of the author . A translation may have a parallel title in the source language . In library cataloging , the note Translation of: is added in the bibliographic description , giving the title in the original language. Click here to see a typescript of Out of Africa by Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen) with her translation into Danish written in pencil above the lines ( Royal Library of Denmark ). Abbreviated trans . See also : Index Translationum and machine translation .
Purely electronic circuit elements soon replaced their mechanical and electromechanical equivalents, at the same time that digital calculation replaced analog. The engineer Tommy Flowers , working at the Post Office Research Station in London in the 1930s, began to explore the possible use of electronics for the telephone exchange . Experimental equipment that he built in 1934 went into operation five years later, converting a portion of the telephone exchange network into an electronic data processing system, using thousands of vacuum tubes .  In the US, John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford E. Berry of Iowa State University developed and tested the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942,  the first "automatic electronic digital computer".  This design was also all-electronic and used about 300 vacuum tubes, with capacitors fixed in a mechanically rotating drum for memory. 
The word 'efficiently' here means up to polynomial-time reductions . This thesis was originally called Computational Complexity-Theoretic Church–Turing Thesis by Ethan Bernstein and Umesh Vazirani (1997). The Complexity-Theoretic Church–Turing Thesis, then, posits that all 'reasonable' models of computation yield the same class of problems that can be computed in polynomial time. Assuming the conjecture that probabilistic polynomial time ( BPP ) equals deterministic polynomial time ( P ), the word 'probabilistic' is optional in the Complexity-Theoretic Church–Turing Thesis. A similar thesis, called the Invariance Thesis , was introduced by Cees F. Slot and Peter van Emde Boas. It states: "Reasonable" machines can simulate each other within a polynomially bounded overhead in time and a constant-factor overhead in space .  The thesis originally appeared in a paper at STOC '84, which was the first paper to show that polynomial-time overhead and constant-space overhead could be simultaneously achieved for a simulation of a Random Access Machine on a Turing machine.