Essay on criticism alexander pope

Let's review. Alexander Pope lived from 1688 to 1744. His poem, ' An Essay on Criticism ,' seeks to introduce and demonstrate the ideals of poetry and teach critics how to avoid doing harm to poetry. The poem is a particularly insightful text that combines and reflects many ideas that were popular during the late 17th and 18th centuries. This time is called the Enlightenment, and Enlightenment thinkers developed much of the science and philosophy that is at the heart of contemporary culture. One of the most important ideas for these writers was the need to directly observe and learn from nature as individual people, an ideal that is central to this poem. 'An Essay on Criticism' is written in heroic couplets , meaning rhyming lines of iambic pentameter . Iambic pentameter means each line has five iambs, which are metrical feet consisting of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable.

Alexander Pope, a translator, poet, wit, amateur landscape gardener, and satirist, was born in London in 1688. He contracted tuberculosis of the bone when he was young, which disfigured his spine and purportedly only allowed him to grow to 4 feet, 6 inches. Pope grew up on his father’s property at Binfield in Windsor Forest, where he read avidly and gained an appreciation for the natural world. Though he remained in ill health throughout his life, he was able to support himself as a translator and writer. As a Catholic at that time in Britain, he was ineligible for patronage, public office, or a position at a university.  

A sharp-penned satirist of public figures and their behavior, Pope had his supporters and detractors. He was friends with Jonathan Swift, Dr. John Arbuthnot, and John Gay. Pope’s poems include the “Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot” and the mock epic “The Rape of the Lock.” To read his work is to be exposed to the order and wit of the 18th century poetry that preceded the Romantic poets. Pope primarily used the heroic couplet, and his lines are immensely quotable; from “An Essay on Criticism” come famous phrases such as “To err is human; to forgive, divine,” “A little learning is a dang’rous thing,” and “For fools rush in where angels fear to tread.”  

After 1718 Pope lived on his five-acre property at Twickenham by the Thames. He cultivated a much-visited garden that contained a grotto, and featured the formal characteristics of a French garden and the newer more natural “English” landscape style.  

Pope wrote “An Essay on Criticism” when he was 23; he was influenced by Quintillian, Aristotle, Horace’s Ars Poetica , and Nicolas Boileau’s L’Art Poëtique . Written in heroic couplets, the tone is straight-forward and conversational. It is a discussion of what good critics should do; however, in reading it one gleans much wisdom on the qualities poets should strive for in their own work. In Part I of “An Essay on Criticism,” Pope notes the lack of “true taste” in critics, stating: “’Tis with our judgments as our watches, none / Go just alike, yet each believes his own.” Pope advocates knowing one’s own artistic limits: “Launch not beyond your depth, but be discreet, / And mark that point where sense and dullness meet.” He stresses the order in nature and the value of the work of the “Ancients” of Greece, but also states that not all good work can be explained by rules: “Some beauties yet, no precepts can declare, / For there’s a happiness as well as care.”  

In Part II, Pope lists the mistakes that critics make, as well as the defects in poems that some critics short-sightedly praise. He advocates looking at a whole piece of work, instead of being swayed by some of its showier or faulty parts: “As men of breeding, sometimes men of wit, / T’ avoid great errors, must the less commit.” He advises against too much ornamentation in writing, and against fancy style that communicates little of merit. In his description of versification, his lines enact the effects of clumsy writing: “And ten low words oft creep in one dull line,” and “A needless Alexandrine ends the song, / That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.” In Part III, Pope discusses what critics should do, holding up the “Ancients” as models, including Aristotle (the “Stagirite”) who was respected by the lawless poets: “Poets, a race long unconfin’d and free, / Still fond and proud of savage liberty, / Receiv’d his laws; and stood convinc’d ‘twas fit, / Who conquer’d nature, should preside o’er wit.”

The poem commences with a discussion of the rules of taste which ought to govern poetry, and which enable a critic to make sound critical judgements. In it Pope comments, too, upon the authority which ought properly to be accorded to the classical authors who dealt with the subject; and concludes (in an apparent attempt to reconcile the opinions of the advocates and opponents of rules) that the rules of the ancients are in fact identical with the rules of Nature: poetry and painting, that is, like religion and morality, actually reflect natural law. The "Essay on Criticism," then, is deliberately ambiguous: Pope seems, on the one hand, to admit that rules are necessary for the production of and criticism of poetry, but he also notes the existence of mysterious, apparently irrational qualities — "Nameless Graces," identified by terms such as "Happiness" and "Lucky Licence" — with which Nature is endowed, and which permit the true poetic genius, possessed of adequate "taste," to appear to transcend those same rules. The critic, of course, if he is to appreciate that genius, must possess similar gifts. True Art, in other words, imitates Nature, and Nature tolerates and indeed encourages felicitous irregularities which are in reality (because Nature and the physical universe are creations of God) aspects of the divine order of things which is eternally beyond human comprehension. Only God, the infinite intellect, the purely rational being, can appreciate the harmony of the universe, but the intelligent and educated critic can appreciate poetic harmonies which echo those in nature. Because his intellect and his reason are limited, however, and because his opinions are inevitably subjective, he finds it helpful or necessary to employ rules which are interpretations of the ancient principles of nature to guide him — though he should never be totally dependent upon them. We should note, in passing, that in "The Essay on Criticism" Pope is frequently concerned with "wit" — the word occurs once, on average, in every sixteen lines of the poem. What does he mean by it?

Of all the Causes which conspire to blind

Man's erring Judgment, and misguide the Mind,

What the weak Head with strongest Byass rules,

Is Pride, the never-failing Vice of Fools.

Whatever Nature has in Worth deny'd,

She gives in large Recruits of needful Pride;

For as in Bodies, thus in Souls, we find

What wants in Blood and Spirits, swell'd with Wind;

Pride, where Wit fails, steps in to our Defence,

And fills up all the mighty Void of Sense!

If once right Reason drives that Cloud away,

Truth breaks upon us with resistless Day;

Trust not your self; but your Defects to know,

Make use of ev'ry Friend--and ev'ry Foe.

Essay on criticism alexander pope

essay on criticism alexander pope

Of all the Causes which conspire to blind

Man's erring Judgment, and misguide the Mind,

What the weak Head with strongest Byass rules,

Is Pride, the never-failing Vice of Fools.

Whatever Nature has in Worth deny'd,

She gives in large Recruits of needful Pride;

For as in Bodies, thus in Souls, we find

What wants in Blood and Spirits, swell'd with Wind;

Pride, where Wit fails, steps in to our Defence,

And fills up all the mighty Void of Sense!

If once right Reason drives that Cloud away,

Truth breaks upon us with resistless Day;

Trust not your self; but your Defects to know,

Make use of ev'ry Friend--and ev'ry Foe.

Media:

essay on criticism alexander popeessay on criticism alexander popeessay on criticism alexander popeessay on criticism alexander pope