The opportunity to succeed is at the foundation of our dynamic economy. In this context, large and persistent shortfalls for African Americans, or any other group, are troubling. Individuals invest in themselves based on the payoff they expect in the labor market. Lower payoffs can result in lower investment, limiting personal and generational mobility. Moreover, disparities in labor income pass through to lower consumption, savings, and wealth, which ultimately makes individuals and families more vulnerable to economic shocks. But perhaps most crucially, there are considerable pressures weighing on . economic growth in coming decades, and it is important for all groups to fully engage in the economy to achieve a shared national prosperity.
But there were tensions. Some Northerners, including Payne, did not approve of the emotional worship style of their Southern counterparts; he stressed that "true" Christian worship meant proper decorum and attention to reading the Bible. Many Southerners were disinterested in Payne's admonitions. They liked their emotive form of worship and saw no reason to cast it aside. Nevertheless, most black Southerners ended up joining independent black churches that had been formed in the North before the Civil War. These included the African Methodist Episcopal (AME) and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ). In 1870, Southerners formed the Colored (now "Christian") Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1894, black Baptists formed the National Baptist Convention.